An extensive amount of literature on this vast subject (including the numerous internet sources) has become available to the interested reader in recent years. Few, if any, try to achieve a balance between explanation, technicalities and brevity - and this is what we have set out to achieve. We analyze basic elements of Smart Card architecture and their standards, and present detailed case studies of the recently introduced multi-functional Smart (Java) Card architectural platforms SmartJ and TinyJ.
We also discuss Java Cards as a modern trend in the Smart Card industry, and consider applications of the Java Card technology not only to the traditional plastic cards, but also to the related devices of various form factors e.g. Java Rings. We touch on the architectural problems with respect to the Smart Card security issues and list current applications of Smart Cards as well as project their applications and architectural design characteristics into the future.